Sue Hill | Chair Examination Committee Part I and OLA Subcommittee
From the Editor.
The Newsletter Editor and the entire ESA staff would like to thank Dr Sue Hill for her continuous and fruitful contribution to the content of the Newsletter.
During the last three years we have been very fortunate to publish questions and answers related to the European Diploma of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care (EDAIC),. We have no doubt that this rubric has helped many of our readers prepare for the examination and that they, too, are grateful to her for the wonderful job done.
Dr Hill takes up the position of ESA Examinations Committee Chair in January 2016.
Answers to the questions asked in the Newsletter spring 2015
EDAIC Part I, Basic Sciences
1. Components of physiological dead space include
A. ventilated but non-perfused areas of lung
B. non-ventilated and non-perfused areas of lung
C. the respiratory bronchioles
D. non-ventilated but perfused areas of lung
E. anatomical dead space
2. Blood glucose concentration is elevated by
A. growth hormone
3. Drugs which decrease myocardial oxygen demand include
C. sodium nitroprusside
D. isoproterenol (isoprenaline)
4. Concerning the electromagnetic spectrum
A. individual wavelengths are proportional to the reciprocal of their frequency
B. the frequency of X-rays and gamma rays is between 1000 – 2500 MHz
C. the wavelength of ultraviolet is longer than that of infra-red light
D. radio waves have a lower frequency than X-rays
E. gases are capable of absorbing electromagnetic radiation
5. If a set of data is positively skewed
A. the median value is lower than the mean value
B. the mean value divides the observations into two equal sized groups
C. the modal value is closer to the median than the mean
D. it may be transformed into a more symmetric distribution by squaring each value
E. there are more observations higher than the mode than lower than the mode
This is a cardiorespiratory physiology question. Physiological dead space is that volume which is ventilated but not perfused. This therefore includes the anatomical dead space plus any areas of the lung where there is no longer perfusion, for example in pulmonary embolus. Respiratory bronchioles are not part of the anatomical dead space and are both ventilated and perfused.
This is a general physiology question about metabolism. This is to explore knowledge of hormone action. Aldosterone is a mineralocorticoid, not a glucocorticoid; although there are reports of an association between impaired glucose tolerance and aldosterone it is not a main action of this hormone so the answer “F” is expected. The EDAIC Part I Examination is designed to test core facts.
This is a cardiovascular pharmacology question. Myocardial oxygen demand is increased in the presence of increased myocardial work so any drugs that increase the heart rate (isoproterenol) or increase the force of contraction (dopamine) will increase demand. Nitroglycerin and sodium nitroprusside reduce pre- and after-load so reduce contractility and therefore reduce oxygen demand.
This is a basic Physics question. Wavelength and frequency are inversely related: the higher the frequency the shorter the wavelength. The range of the electromagnetic spectrum in terms of frequency is from 1000 m (long wave radio, 106 Hz = 1 MHz) through the visible spectrum (400 – 700 nm, around 1015 Hz) to X-rays and gamma rays (1017 – 1020 Hz). In the visible spectrum, red has the lowest frequency and violet the highest so infrared has a lower frequency and longer wavelength than ultraviolet. Radio and TV waves have lower frequencies and longer wavelengths than the visible spectrum and very much lower than X-rays. These waves are energy-containing and can interact with molecules of gas, which can absorb their energy – the principle behind measurement of carbon dioxide concentration using infrared light for example.
This is a Statistics question about data distributions. A positively skewed set of data has more values above the modal value than below it, creating a “tail” of values to the right of the mode. The larger values in this “tail” make the mean value higher than the median value. The median value divides the observations into two equally sized groups when the sample data are ordered or displayed graphically, so the median lies between the mode and the mean values. By squaring values in a positively skewed data set, it may be possible to make their distribution look more symmetrical – called “normalizing”; other transformations may be used – cubing for example.